Garbage Collection in Python

By: Python Documentation Team  

The details of Python memory management depend on the implementation. The standard C implementation of Python uses reference counting to detect inaccessible objects, and another mechanism to collect reference cycles, periodically executing a cycle detection algorithm which looks for inaccessible cycles and deletes the objects involved. The gc module provides functions to perform a garbage collection, obtain debugging statistics, and tune the collector’s parameters.

Jython relies on the Java runtime so the JVM’s garbage collector is used. This difference can cause some subtle porting problems if your Python code depends on the behavior of the reference counting implementation.

In the absence of circularities, Python programs do not need to manage memory explicitly.

Why doesn’t Python use a more traditional garbage collection scheme? For one thing, this is not a C standard feature and hence it’s not portable. (Yes, we know about the Boehm GC library. It has bits of assembler code for most common platforms, not for all of them, and although it is mostly transparent, it isn’t completely transparent; patches are required to get Python to work with it.)

Traditional GC also becomes a problem when Python is embedded into other applications. While in a standalone Python it’s fine to replace the standard malloc() and free() with versions provided by the GC library, an application embedding Python may want to have its own substitute for malloc() and free(), and may not want Python’s. Right now, Python works with anything that implements malloc() and free() properly.

In Jython, the following code (which is fine in CPython) will probably run out of file descriptors long before it runs out of memory:

for file in very_long_list_of_files:
    f = open(file)
    c =

Using the current reference counting and destructor scheme, each new assignment to f closes the previous file. Using GC, this is not guaranteed. If you want to write code that will work with any Python implementation, you should explicitly close the file or use the with statement; this will work regardless of GC:

for file in very_long_list_of_files:
    with open(file) as f:
        c =

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