Result Sets, Cursors and Transactions in SQL

By: Manoj Kumar Emailed: 1677 times Printed: 2154 times    

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Result Sets and Cursors

The rows that satisfy the conditions of a query are called the result set. The number of rows returned in a result set can be zero, one, or many. A user can access the data in a result set one row at a time, and a cursor provides the means to do that. A cursor can be thought of as a pointer into a file that contains the rows of the result set, and that pointer has the ability to keep track of which row is currently being accessed. A cursor allows a user to process each row of a result set from top to bottom and consequently may be used for iterative processing. Most DBMSs create a cursor automatically when a result set is generated.

Earlier JDBC API versions added new capabilities for a result set's cursor, allowing it to move both forward and backward and also allowing it to move to a specified row or to a row whose position is relative to another row.

Transactions

When one user is accessing data in a database, another user may be accessing the same data at the same time. If, for instance, the first user is updating some columns in a table at the same time the second user is selecting columns from that same table, it is possible for the second user to get partly old data and partly updated data. For this reason, DBMSs use transactions to maintain data in a consistent state (data consistency) while allowing more than one user to access a database at the same time (data concurrency).

A transaction is a set of one or more SQL statements that make up a logical unit of work. A transaction ends with either a commit or a rollback, depending on whether there are any problems with data consistency or data concurrency. The commit statement makes permanent the changes resulting from the SQL statements in the transaction, and the rollback statement undoes all changes resulting from the SQL statements in the transaction.

A lock is a mechanism that prohibits two transactions from manipulating the same data at the same time. For example, a table lock prevents a table from being dropped if there is an uncommitted transaction on that table. In some DBMSs, a table lock also locks all of the rows in a table. A row lock prevents two transactions from modifying the same row, or it prevents one transaction from selecting a row while another transaction is still modifying it.


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